1. Gujarati is a syllabic alphabet in that it consists of consonants with vowel signs, and is similar in structure to Devanagari.
  2. With this Keyboard, you can practice Punjabi lessons online for beginners. Punjabi Keyboard Online is the best and most comfortable virtual Keyboard to type in Punjabi alphabets, letters, and words. This online keyboard app is also useful for users who speak Punjabi across the world. Write Punjabi at a faster pace with this virtual Keyboard.
  3. The benefit of this is that any type of keyboard, phonetic or otherwise, can be used with any Unicode font and obtain the same result. So, you can use the default Gujarati keyboard included with Microsoft Windows and type 'પ' by typing 'h' or you can use my Gujarati Phonetic keyboard to type 'પ' by typing 'p'. The result will be the real.

Page Content

  1. Web Development
    1. Language Code: gu
  2. Gujarati Unicode Chart(New Page)

Virtual Gujarati Keyboard (ગુજરાતી) for writing text with Gujarati letters on screen. Write in Gujarati WITHOUT Gujarati Keyboard! Free gujarati typing keyboard download. System Utilities downloads - Gujarati Indic Input by Microsoft and many more programs are available for instant and free download.

About the Script

Gujarati is a syllabic alphabet in that it consists of consonants with vowel signs, and is similar in structure to Devanagari.

Activating Keyboards for Fonts

Basic Setup

In order to integrate foreign scripts into your computer, you must set up 'keyboard' or input utilities in your operating system. These utilities will allow you to switch between typing English and other languages in word processors and Web tools. This process will also make sure the correct fonts are installed and available on your operating system.

See instructions for Setting up Keyboards for details.

Windows

Microsoft includes several keyboards for Gujarati, but it may need to be installed from the Windows System disk. See the Windows Complex Scripts Keyboard Instructions for details on how to activate the keyboard. To see where the critical keys are, go to the Microsoft Keyboard Layouts Page.

A freeware Gujarati Windows Unicode keyboard is also available from the Penn Language Center.

Macintosh

Apple has two keyboards called Gujarati and Gujarati QWERTY (phonetic) keyboard. See instructions for activating Macintosh keyboards.

Recommended Applications

The following applications most fully support vowel placements.

  • Text Edit (Free with OS X)
  • Neo Office J (Open Office) - freeware software, similar to Microsoft Office. For best results, switch to the Lucida Grande font.

Browser and Font Recommendations

Test Sites

If you have your browser configured correctly, the Web sites above should display the correct characters. If you have difficulties, see list below for font and browser configuration instructions.

Fonts by Platform

  • Windows - Shruti, others
  • Mac OS X -Gujarati MT
  • Mac System 9 - Gujarati MT

Additional Freeware Fonts

Read pages for instructions on whether it is Windows compliant or Linux compliant.
Note on OS X: These fonts can be installed on a Mac, but vowel marks may not display correctly.

  • Utkarsh Aakar and Rekha Font - Open Type
  • Padmaa - Open Type fonts

See also

  • Gallery of Unicode Fonts - Scroll down for list of scripts.

Recommended Browsers

Browsers which fully support Unicode are the strongly recommended. Click link in list to view configuration instructions. You will be asked to match a script with a font.

  • Mozilla - Mac Users can paste text into TextEdit if content is not clear
  • Firefox - Mac Users can paste text into TextEdit if content is not clear
  • Safari (Mac) - Mac Users can paste text into TextEdit if content is not clear

Note on OS X: Only Opera displays most vowel signs correctly on the Mac. Vowel signs are visible in Firefox/Mozilla or Safari, but are displaced off the letter. Users of these browsers can cut and paste text into TextEdit is content is not clear

Note on System 9: Because Unicode support is incomplete in System 9, it may be beneficial to upgrade to OS X if you need to work with Unicode.

Manually Switch Encoding

If you see Roman character gibberish instead of a South Asian script, you will need to manually switch from Western encoding view to the Unicode encoding under the View menu of your browser.

Web Development

Gujarati Encoding and Language Tags

These are the codes which allow browsers and screen readers to process data as the appropriate language. All letters in codes are lower case.

  • Encoding: utf-8(Unicode)
  • Language Codes: gu (Gujarati), kfr (Kachchi/Kutchee - also written in the Devanagari Script)

Using Encoding and Language Codes

Computers process text by assuming a certain encoding or a system of matching electronic data with visual text characters. Whenever you develop a Web site you need to make sure the proper encoding is specified in the header tags; otherwise the browser may default to U.S. settings and not display the text properly.

To declare an encoding, insert or inspect the following meta-tag at the top of your HTML file, then replace '???' with one of the encoding codes listed above. If you are not sure, use utf-8 as the encoding.

Generic Encoding Template

<head>
<meta http-equiv='Content-Type'>
...
<head>

Declare Unicode

<head>
<meta http-equiv='Content-Type'>
...
<head>

XHTML

The final close slash must be included after the final quote mark in the encoding header tag if you are using XHTML

Declare Unicode in XHTML

<head>
<meta http-equiv='Content-Type'U T F dash 8'>utf-8' />
...
<head>

No Encoding Declared

Download

If no encoding is declared, then the browser uses the default setting, which in the U.S. is typically Latin-1. Some display errors may occur.

Language Tags

Language tags are also suggested so that search engines and screen readers parse the language of a page. These are metadata tags which indicate the language of a page, not devices to trigger translation. Visit the Language Tag page to view information on where to insert it.

Inputting and Editing Text in an HTML Editor

One option is to use Dreamweaver, Microsoft Expression or other Web editor and change the keyboard to the correct script. This will allow you to type content in directly with the appropriate script. However, it is important to verify that the correct encoding is specified in the Web page header.

Another option is to compose the basic text in an international or foreign language text editor or word processor and export the content as an HTML or text file with the appropriate encoding. This file could be opened in another HTML editor such as Dreamweaver or Microsoft Expression, and edited for formatting.

Other Web Tools

For Web tools such as Blogs at Penn State, Facebook, Twitter, del.icio.us, Flicker, and others, users can typically change the keyboard and input text. In most cases, this content will be encoded as Unicode.

Unicode Chart with HTML Entity Codes

For short texts, it may be desirable to use Unicode entity codes for Gujarati and enter HTML entity codes.

PDF and Image Files

In some cases, your best options may be to use PDF files or image files. See the Web Development Tips section for more details.

Links

Script Basics

General Computing

Fonts

Read pages for instructions on whether it is Windows compliant or Linux compliant.
Note on OS X: These fonts can be installed on a Mac, but vowel marks may not display correctly.

  • Utkarsh Aakar and Rekha Font - Open Type
  • Padmaa - Open Type fonts
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Last Modified: Tuesday, 30-Jun-2015 15:54:22 EDT

Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Modern Indo-Aryan, Southwestern.


Overview. Gujarati is a regional language of India, restricted in great measure to the state of Gujarat and related to its neighbor Marathi. It originated in western India after the demise of the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty, which gave the language its name, at the beginning of the second millennium CE. Gujarati is, like other Modern Indo-Aryan languages, a descendant of Sanskrit which has a much simpler morphology than his ancestor.


Distribution. Gujarati is spoken mainly in India, in the state of Gujarat and the adjacent areas of Maharashtra (especially in Mumbai) as well as in Lower Punjab and Sind in Pakistan. There is a Gujarati-speaking diaspora in the Persian Gulf, East Africa, Great Britain and North America.


Speakers. About 55 million in the following countries:


India

Tanzania

Great Britain

Uganda

U.S.A.

Kenya

Pakistan

Malawi

Oman

Zambia

Alphabet

53,500,000

348,000

310,000

300,000

243,000

160,000

100,000

44,000

33,000

23,000



  1. In India, 49.6 million Gujarati speakers live in Gujarat and 2.7 million in Maharashtra.



Status. Gujarati is the official language of the Indian state of Gujarat and one of the 23 official languages of India.


Varieties. The main ones areStandard Gujarati (between Ahmedabad and Vadodara), Surati (southeastern Gujarat), Kathiawari (peninsula of Saurashtra), Carotari (central Gujarat) and Patani (northern Gujarat). The Gujarati spoken in Pakistan is very similar to Patani. Kutchi (also called Kacchi), spoken in western Gujarat, is a closely related language influenced by the neighboring Sindhi of Pakistan. Outside South Asia, the most distinctive variant is East African Gujarati.


Periods. The main differences between these three stages of Gujarati are phonological:


12th-15th c. Old Gujarati


15th-18th c. Middle Gujarati


18th c.-present. Modern Gujarati


Oldest Document. It is the Bharateśvara-bāhubali, a didactic narrative poem (rāsa) composed by Śālibhadrasūri in 1185.


Phonology

Vowels (8). All vowels, except [e] and [o], occur nasalized, and in murmured and non-murmured forms. Gujarati has short and long vowels but they are not contrastive.




Consonants (31). Gujarati has 31 consonants in total including 20 stops, 3 fricatives, 3 nasals, and 5 liquids and glides. The stops and nasals are articulated at five different places being classified as: labial, dental, retroflex, palatal and velar. The palatal stops are, in fact, affricates. Every series of stops includes voiceless and voiced consonants, unaspirated and aspirated, this four-way contrast being unique to Indo-Aryan among Indo-European languages (Proto-Indoeuropean had a three-way contrast only).

The retroflex consonants of Gujarati, articulated immediately behind the alveolar crest, are not from Indo-European origin though present already in Sanskrit. They are, probably, the result of Dravidian language influence. Gujarati has, also, a retroflex liquid not inherited from Sanskrit.




Script and Orthography

Gujarati has its own script. It is a syllabic alphabet (abugida), derived ultimately from Brāhmī, in which every consonant carries the inherent vowel [ə]. Its principles are similar to those of Devanāgarī script. To represent other non-initial vowels, diacritic vowel signs are added before, after, above or below a consonant.

The Gujarati alphabet consists of 47 letters ordered according to phonetic principles (below each one the standard transliteration is shown followed by its International Phonetic Alphabet equivalent). First, come the simple vowels, then the syllabic ones followed by the diphthongs (e and o derive from ancient diphthongs and were considered so by the native grammarians). After the vowels come the stops and nasal consonants divided into five groups (each of five letters) according to their place of articulation (from back to front). Within each group the order is: voiceless unaspirated stop, voiceless aspirated stop, voiced unaspirated stop, voiced aspirated stop, nasal. After these five groups, follow the semivowels (liquids and glides) also arranged according to their place of articulation. Then, the fricatives starting with the sibilants. The last two are biconsonantal groups, found only in Sanskrit loans, included traditionally in the alphabet.




  1. the vowels [e] and [ɛ] are rendered both as e; [ə] is rendered as a; [a] as ā; [o] and [ɔ] are rendered both as o; long [i] and [u] as ī and ū.

  2. The syllabic vowel ri, transliterated ṛ, is present only in Sanskrit loanwords.

  3. the aspirated stops and affricates are rendered as digraphs (pʰ = ph, dʰ = dh, etc).

  4. the retroflex stops ʈ , ɖ are transliterated ṭ , ḍ.

  5. the affricates tʃ , dʒ are transliterated c , j.

  6. the Gujarati script has three signs for sibilants (ś, ṣ, s) but both ś and ṣ are pronounced ʃ.

  7. the glottal fricative ɦ is transliterated h.

  8. the nasal ɳ is rendered ṇ. There are signs for the palatal and velar nasals (ñ, ṅ) in the script but they are pronounced as n.

  9. the retroflex liquid ɭ is transliterated ḷ.

  10. the glide w is transliterated v.



Morphology


  1. Nominal.Some nouns and adjectives are inflected while others are invariable. Inflected adjectives agree in case, gender and number with the nouns they qualify.


  1. gender: masculine, neuter, feminine. Masculine singular nouns end in -o, neuter ones in - and feminines in -ī.


  1. number: singular, plural. The plural marker is -o.


  1. case: nominative, oblique, vocative.


  1. The nominative case is used for subject and direct object.


  1. The oblique case is used for nouns accompanied by postpositions which serve as markers for other syntactical functions.

  2. The vocative is morphologically undistinguishable from the oblique.


  1. pronouns: personal, demonstrative, interrogative, relative, indefinite.


  1. Personalpronouns have inclusive and exclusive first person plural forms. They are genderless but distinguish three degrees of status in the second person: the 2nd singular is the familiar form, for a more polite form the 2nd plural is used (even for a single person); besides there is another 2nd plural form which is very formal.

  2. The 3rd person uses demonstrative pronouns.

  3. Pronouns are declined in three cases to mark the subject, object or agent of a verbal construction.


  1. Demonstrative pronouns distinguish proximal and distal degrees and have a plural polite form.


  1. Gujarati has two interrogative pronouns: kɔṇ('who?') and śũ ('what?'). Other interrogative words are: kyāre ('when?'), kyā̃, ('where?'), kɛm ('why?'):


  1. The relative pronoun is inflected for number and case: je (nom. sg), jeo (nom. pl.). Its correlative in the main clause is the distal demonstrative pronoun.


  1. compounds: Gujarati uses compound words formed by combination of adjectives and nouns i.e., adjective-noun, noun-adjective, noun-noun, adjective-adjective.


  1. In the adjective-noun type, the adjective is an attribute of the noun (e.g. black-bird).

  2. The noun-adjective type is employed for comparisons (e.g. ice-cold = cold as ice).

  3. The noun-noun type, has two varieties: in one of them both nouns are joined by an imaginary copulative conjunction (e.g. apple-orange = apple and orange); in the other the last noun is the main element establishing different syntactical relationships with the other noun, like genitive, locative, instrumental, etc (e.g. house-master = master of the house).

  4. The adjective-adjective type is like the copulative noun-noun subtype (e.g. tall-beautiful = tall and beautiful).

Gujarati Alphabet Toys



  1. Verbal

  2. person and number: 1s, 2s, 3s; 1p, 2p, 3p.


  1. aspect: imperfective (including habitual and continuous actions) and perfective (completed activities). They originate two stem types. The imperfective stem is formed by attaching the affix -t- to the verb root and the perfective one by adding -y- to it.


  1. mood: mood and tense are intertwined in Gujarati. The presumptive, subjunctive and contrafactual are considered an integral part of the tense system. Only the imperative is considered an independent mood.


  1. tense: most finite-verbs combine aspect and tense-mood. There are two aspects, imperfective and perfective and five different forms of the verb 'to be' (hɔvũ): present,past,presumptive, subjunctive and contrafactual (past conditional). Combined together, they produce ten (compound) aspectual tenses.


  1. Besides these, Gujarati has two non-tense forms (unspecified imperfective, unspecified perfective), two non-aspectual forms (unspecified contrafactual, definite future), and one form without aspect and tense (contingent future).


  1. The simple present is formed by adding personal markers directly to the verb root + the present of hɔvũ; as a consequence person and number are marked in both the main verb and the auxiliary. For example, the present of the verb kar- ('do') is:




  1. The other compound tenses are formed with the imperfective or perfective participle, which agree in gender and number with the subject, plus the present, past, presumptive, subjunctive and contrafactual forms of the copula hɔvũ. The copulaindicates person and number in the present, presumptive and subjunctive; gender and number in the past (where it behaves like an adjective); in the contrafactual it is invariable:




  1. black: verb roots; brown: aspect markers; green: future marker;

  2. red: gender and number marking; blue: personal endings.


  1. voice: active, passive. The passive voice is formed by adding -a to the stem e.g. karavũ ('to be done').


  1. derivative conjugation: causative. It is formed by adding -āv/-ā to the stem e.g karāvvũ ('to cause to do').


  1. negation: the particles na or nahi negate forms of the verb (finite or non-finite) in which the copula is not used. In periphrastic verb forms the negative copula nathī, which is invariable, is used, instead. A negative imperative is expressed with the negator particle .


  1. non-finite forms: infinitive, conjunctive, present participle, past participle, gerundive.


  1. The infinitive is the citation form and ends in - e.g. karvũ ('to do')

  2. The conjunctive expresses an action that takes place before another one.

  3. The gerundive expresses necessity or obligation.



Syntax

The neutral word order is a flexible Subject-Object-Verb.Noun modifiers precede their nouns and adverbs precede verbs. Syntactical relations are conveyed mainly by postpositions. Transitive verbs conjugated in any of the perfective tenses agree with their object while the subject adopts the oblique case, a phenomenon known as split ergativity.

Gujarati Alphabet Keyboard Font


Lexicon

Gujarati has loanwords from Persian, Arabic, Portuguese and English.


Basic Vocabulary

one: ek

two: be

three: traṇ

four: cār

five: pā̃c

six: cha

seven: sāt

eight: āṭh

nine: nav

ten: das

hundred: so


father: pitā

mother: matā

brother: bhāi

sister: bahena

son: putra

daughter: putrī


head: śir

eye: ā̃kh

foot: pag

heart: hṛdaya, dil

tongue: jībh


Key Literary Works (forthcoming).



  1. © 2013 Alejandro Gutman and Beatriz Avanzati


Further Reading

  1. -'Gujarati'. G. Cardona & B. Suthar. In The Indo-Aryan Languages, 722-765. G. Cardona & D. Jain (eds). Routledge (2007).

  2. -A Gujarati Reference Grammar. G. Cardona. University of Pennsylvania Press (1965).

  3. -Colloquial Gujarati: A Complete Language Course. J. Dave. Routledge (1995).



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